Pediatric Myopia

What Is Pediatric Myopia?

Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a common refractive anomaly that often begins between the ages of six and 14 and progresses over several years before stabilizing and lasting through adulthood. With myopia, the eye is longer than normal (axial elongation) from front to back, or the cornea is too steeply curved, which causes light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it.1,2  Those with myopia have difficulty seeing distant objects, but near objects remain clear. Myopia is a condition that may lead to higher rates of blindness and serious eye complications later in life.

 Myopia is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide.3 If current trends continue, it is estimated that by 2050 there will be approximately 5 billion people with myopia (50% of the world’s population).4 Higher levels of myopia significantly increase a child’s risk for serious blinding eye disease to occur in their lifetime, such as myopic maculopathy, posterior staphyloma, retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma.5

Current Treatment Options 

Interventions to slow the progression of myopia include spectacles, contact lenses or behavioral modifications.5 A common treatment for myopia are various contact lens options, but safety remains a concern because the risk of sight-threatening microbial keratitis (bacterial infection of the cornea) and the possibility of regression after discontinuation of lens wear.4 Spectacles are another treatment option for children who are unable or prefer not to wear contact lenses.  Behavioral recommendations for myopia patients include spending more time outdoors, limiting large amounts of time spent on screen time or reading up close, and increased exposure to sunlight.6

Given the profound impact myopia has on an individual’s long-term health and that it is an incredibly widespread condition, additional interventions are needed to help mitigate the prevalence and severity of this condition.2




The visual dysfunction and cost of managing myopia-related complications have become a heavy burden on patients and society at large. To reduce myopia progression, low-concentration atropine eye drops are a promising therapy.7

Atropine for myopia addresses the anatomic changes (i.e., longer ocular axial length) associated with myopia progression, which cannot be easily achieved with spectacles or contact lenses.8

 NVK002 is an investigational, preservative-free, low-dose atropine eye drop, using Vyluma’s proprietary technology to address stability, tolerability, and safety. The CHAMP (Childhood Atropine for Myopia Progression) study includes children ages three to 17 and administration is a single drop to both eyes, nightly. The CHAMP study is currently testing two concentrations in the United States and Europe. The NDA was accepted in Q2 of 2023.


  1. American Optometric Association. Myopia (Nearsightedness). Accessed 6/4/2021.
  2. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Myopia Control in Children. Accessed 6/4/2021.
  1. Wu W, Xie Y, Liu X, et al. Analysis of Scientific Collaboration Networks among Authors, Institutions, and Countries Studying Adolescent Myopia Prevention and Control: A Review Article.Iran J Public Health. 2019;48(4):621-631.
  2. Lawrenson JG, Dhakal R, Verkicharla PK, Shah R, Huntjens B, Downie LE, Kernohan A, Li  T, Virgili  G, Walline  JJ. Interventions for myopia control in children: a living systematic review and network meta‐ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2021, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD014758. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD014758.
  3. Noel A. Brennan, Youssef M. Toubouti, Xu Cheng, Mark A. Bullimore. Efficacy in myopia control, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2020;100923.
  4. Theophanous C, Modjtahedi BS, Batech M, Marlin DS, Luong TQ, Fong DS. Myopia prevalence and risk factors in children. Clin Ophthalmol. 2018;12:1581-1587. Published 2018 Aug 29. doi:10.2147/OPTH.S164641.
  5. Fen Fen Li, Yuzhou Zhang, Xiujuan Zhang, Benjamin Hon Kei Yip, Shu Min Tang, Ka Wai Kam, Alvin L. Young, Li Jia Chen, Clement C. Tham, Chi Pui Pang, Jason C. Yam. Age Effect on Treatment Responses to 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% Atropine: Low-Concentration Atropine for Myopia Progression Study. Ophthalmology, 2021.
  6. Modjtahedi BS, Abbott RL, Fong DS, Lum F, Tan D; Task Force on Myopia. Reducing the Global Burden of Myopia by Delaying the Onset of Myopia and Reducing Myopic Progression in Children: The Academy’s Task Force on Myopia. Ophthalmology. 2021 Jun;128(6):816-826. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.10.040. Epub 2020 Dec 30. PMID: 33388160.